How did we come to place our faith in a symbol that is so ephemeral—all vapor and crystal?Credit Illustration by Harry Campbell
It is tempting, sometimes, to point at all the new words we acquire, year after year, as a measure of how fast the world is changing. There is a fleeting shock to be had in the recollection that humans of the very near past made do without reference to “sexts” or “paywalls.” But what can we learn from the old words that get remade before our very eyes, the new possibilities that gather around “leak” or “virus,” or the new wariness that accompanies once-innocuous words like “disruption” and “content”?
Around 2010, casual Internet users were introduced to the idea that the digital world around them could be understood in terms of the “cloud.” As a metaphor, the cloud seems easy to grasp: our data is somewhere in the ether, floating, drifting and wireless, available wherever and whenever we need it. It carries hints of childhood wonder; the term is evocative because it is the opposite of the hard, material world of plugs and cables, disk drives and superhighways. But the thing about a cloud, Tung-Hui Hu reminds us in his mesmerizing new book, “A Prehistory of the Cloud,” is that you can only see it from a distance. How did we come to place our faith in a symbol that is so ephemeral—all vapor and crystal? “Like the inaudible hum of the electrical grid at 60 hertz, the cloud is silent, in the background, and almost unnoticeable.” What might we learn if we try to trace its mellow outline against the sky?
“A Prehistory of the Cloud” is Hu’s imaginative attempt to bring this abstraction into clearer focus. It’s informed as much by his current jobs (English professor and poet) as his old one (network engineer), and his approach is eclectic and unpredictable, full of unexpected riffs on Victorian sewage systems, the history of television, counterculture seekers, and the chilling final scene of Francis Ford Coppola’s paranoid classic “The Conversation.” Hu begins by following the sporadic appearance of the cloud through the dreams of last century’s inventors and engineers. One of the earliest occurrences of its modern shape is found in a 1922 design for a series of linked telegraphs that allowed mathematicians to communicate with one another and thereby predict the weather. In 1951, A.T. & T. introduced a series of microwave relay stations and called it the “electronic ‘skyway’ ”—this, too, suggested a fuzzy, cloud-like formation. By the nineteen-seventies, the figure of the cloud had emerged as a way to depict complex communication networks, especially ones, like the telephone or Internet, where information traveled along unpredictable circuits. (Prior to this, networks had been depicted in terms of boxes, grids, straight lines, and direct arrows, rather than the squiggles and curls of these new renderings.)
What these examples had in common was a desire to collect something scattered and far-flung into a legible whole. As Hu explains, the idea of wholeness was important, since it contained the possibility that an entire network could continue functioning even if one node along the way went offline, a resilience that held special appeal for the military. The cloud had no beginning or end. It was adaptable and ubiquitous, a vision of a society with no center.
For military schemers, the centerless cloud promised security: it was a communications network with no clear bull’s-eye. But what makes Hu’s book so absorbing is its playful speculations about alternative possibilities, all the strange resonances lurking in the archives. While American intelligence fine-tuned its blueprints for a networked world, others were also drifting toward the dream of a decentralized future—only their version was about blazing a trail that would be free of The Man’s dragnet. Any thorough history of technology contains moments that feel like science fiction or an acid trip; these are some of the most gripping moments of Hu’s book, as when he lingers on the bewitching, “Crying of Lot 49”-like possibility that Stanford Research Institute engineers and avant-garde “video freaks” could have encountered one another at a Peninsula bar, or side by side at a stop light, as both crews sat in their mobile transmitting vans. Maybe they would have realized they were working toward the same future.
But who would control that future? Despite his book’s melancholy vibe, Hu’s story isn’t a particularly paranoid one. For him, the scattered origins of the cloud and cloud-thinking are important, in part, for the way that they dispel present-day techno-utopianism. Just as old words get refurbished with new meanings, much of our nation’s Internet infrastructure was simply laid atop paths cleared for the railroads and telephones—a previous generation’s technological wonders. The name of the telecommunications giant Sprint, for example, was originally an acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony. Or consider Iron Mountain, once a nuclear blast-proof vault for corporate clients and now one of America’s biggest data backup and digital storage companies. (That site—or, rather, a lightly fictionalized version of it, called Steel Mountain—featured prominently on “Mr. Robot,” the popular TV series about a group of hackers.) Understanding that history matters, if only to recognize where our attitudes and expectations toward technology came from, and how we came to accept the silent bargain each of us makes when we tap into the power of distant servers or escrow our digital lives somewhere in the sky. Hu argues, convincingly, that the military’s interest in online impregnability trickled down to the rest of us and became one of the central anxieties in our increasingly interlinked digital lives: the language of data security and disaster prevention, the overhyped concerns about borders and contamination that Hu eloquently reads in the leering hysteria over Nigerian spammers.
“To think about the digital network,” Hu writes, “one must first think about the network in the absence of individual technologies.” Innovations and platforms come and go, but the impressions they leave on our sense of the world remain. What kind of thinking does the cloud, so porous and diffuse, enable? Does our participation in the cloud require us to surrender a bit of our privacy? Can it help explain the rise of the meme and our increasingly lax attitude toward notions of authorship and origins, the way something on the Internet begins to seem ubiquitous and ambient, as if it had always just been there? When the comedian known as the Fat Jew was accused of stealing jokes from other Instagram users, for instance, he defended himself by pointing to the Internet’s borderless nature, where it is “sometimes hard to find the original source of something.”
The deep strangeness of the cloud only occurs to most of us in those brief moments when we forget our Dropbox passwords or hear about a celebrity’s wayward nudes. Hu began wondering about it, he explains, in his former life, as a network engineer working in Silicon Valley in the late nineteen-nineties. Every day, he would clock in at one of the many unassuming, faintly Spanish-looking buildings in downtown Palo Alto. “Unbeknownst to its well-heeled passers-by,” he writes, nearly a fifth of the world’s Internet traffic zipped through this facility, where Hu often had no clue what his co-workers a few feet over were doing. In a short section titled “Learning From Santa Clara,” he returns to the Bay Area’s brick-and-mortar data centers, where the guts of the Internet are hidden in plain sight. It’s just a series of photographs featuring office windows, lamp posts, building vents, generators—a landscape of the forgettable and mundane that betrays none of its secrets and, hopefully, none of ours.
Watch: Joi Ito, the director of the M.I.T. Media Lab, joins The New Yorker’s Nicholas Thompson to discuss how some of the biggest players in tech embrace new digital products.
Cloud computing is uniquely susceptible to the confusion and hype that surrounds it. Here, we provide a top 10 list of the most common misconceptions that CIOs should look out for.
- Cloud computing is uniquely susceptible to the perils of myths due to the nature, confusion and hype surrounding it.
- Myths slow us down, impede innovation and scare us, thus distracting us from real progress, innovation and outcomes.
- The most prevalent myth about the cloud is that it always saves money.
- Never assume that everyone has the same understanding, view, expectations or even definition of cloud computing.
- Ignore the extreme polarizing views that can result from cloud computing myths that can be contradictory.
- Avoid “one size fits all” and overly simplistic answers to complex situations — cloud is not one thing.
- Maintain sight of business goals and align the potential benefits (and drawbacks) of cloud computing with them.
Table of Contents
- Myth 1: Cloud Is Always About Money
- Myth 2: You Have to Be Cloud to Be Good
- Myth 3: Cloud Should Be Used for Everything
- Myth 4: “The CEO Said So” Is a Cloud Strategy
- Myth 5: We Need One Cloud Strategy or Vendor
- Myth 6: Cloud Is Less Secure Than On-Premises Capabilities
- Myth 7: Cloud Is Not for Mission-Critical Use
- Myth 8: Cloud = Data Center
- Myth 9: Migrating to the Cloud Means You Automatically Get All Cloud Characteristics
- Myth 10: Virtualization = Private Cloud
- Gartner Recommended Reading
Cloud computing, by its very nature, is uniquely susceptible to the perils of myths. It is all about capabilities delivered as a service, with a clear boundary between the provider of the service and the consumer. From a consumer perspective, “in the cloud” means where the magic happens, where the implementation details are supposed to be hidden. So it should be no surprise that such an environment is rife with myths and misunderstandings.
Even with a mostly agreed on formal definition (see “NIST and Gartner Cloud Approaches Are More Similar Than Different” ), multiple perspectives and agendas still conspire to mystify the subject ever more. Add to this the incessant hype (see “Hype Cycle for Cloud Computing, 2014” ) and we get the resultant confusion that permeates IT (and beyond) today.
Myths are sometimes harmless but they do have an effect on how we approach solutions:
- They slow us down and distract us from the real issues and the real solutions.
- They can cause us to make decisions based on assumptions that are wrong, or even dangerous.
- They impede innovation.
- They slow progress toward real goals and real accomplishments and outcomes.
- They scare us. Many myths are rooted in fear and misunderstanding. They can drive decisions and strategies based on fear and this leads to oversimplifications and mantras that are the real dangers.
There is no shortage of candidates for the top 10 cloud myths. Below is a list that highlights some of the most dangerous and misleading ones.
Rarely are financial considerations not part of an IT decision process, especially when that process concerns cloud computing. However, the prevalent myth about the cloud is that it always saves money. While this is sometimes the case, there are many other reasons cited for migrating to the cloud, the most common of which is for agility.
Gartner’s 2014 CIO survey shows that cost savings account for only 14% of the reasons for organizations’ use of the public cloud (see “Taming the Digital Dragon: The 2014 CIO Agenda” ). While prices are dropping, especially for infrastructure as a service (IaaS), not all cloud service pricing is coming down (for example, most software as a service [SaaS]). Assuming that the cloud always saves money can lead to career-limiting promises. Saving money may end up one of the benefits, but it should not be taken for granted.
Many myths also have seemingly contradictory counter myths — in this case, the belief that an organization is capable of matching or beating the price points of the public cloud. Counter myths are usually a result of different perspectives and personas and can lead to extremes that appear to be contradictory. The reality is that these extreme positions are held by different people — not that we find single individuals believing both extremes. While it is true that some very efficient organizations with extremely high-volume needs can indeed run infrastructure costs efficiently, this is not the norm. Often, calculations trying to prove this “conveniently” omit real estate, utility and other types of costs.
Advice: Don’t assume you will save money unless you have done the hard work of honestly analyzing the situation. Utilize total cost of ownership and other models on a case-by-case basis. Segment cloud into use cases. Look beyond cost issues. Also, be certain to check with financial specialists about the implications that a switch from capital expenditure (capex) to operating expenditure (opex) may have. Don’t assume that opex is always better than capex. Keep revisiting analysis as the market and prices change often.
This is the manifestation of rampant “cloud washing” (referring to the tendency to call things cloud that are not). It is not just vendors that do this, although many have been guilty of it. Some cloud washing is accidental and a result of legitimate confusion, but some is also based on a mistaken mantra (fed by hype) that something cannot be “good” unless it is cloud. IT organizations are also increasingly calling many things cloud as part of their efforts to gain funding and meet nebulous cloud demands and strategies. The resultant myth is that people are falling into the trap of believing that if something is good it has to be cloud or that if it is not cloud based it cannot be good.
Advice: Call things what they are. Many other capabilities (e.g., automation, virtualization) and characteristics can be good and do not need to be cloud washed. Allow these strategies to stand on their own. Avoid misplaced expectations.
This is related to Myth 2 and refers to the belief that the actual characteristics of the cloud are applicable to, or desirable for, everything. Clearly, there are some use cases where there is a great fit. Examples include highly variable or unpredictable workloads, cases where there are clear savings, and those where self-service provisioning and reprovisioning are key. The cloud fits where value is placed on flexibility and the business has the ability to consume and pay for only what is needed when needed. However, not all applications and workloads benefit from the cloud. Unless there are cost savings, moving a legacy application that doesn’t change is not a good candidate.
Advice: The cloud may not benefit all workloads equally. Never assume that it does. Analyze applications on a case-by-case basis. Don’t be afraid to propose noncloud solutions when appropriate.
When asked about what their cloud strategy is, many companies don’t have one and the default is often (stated or not) that they are just doing what their CEO wants. Sometimes the CEO has actually dictated that the cloud is the strategy (without a connection to an actual business goal). Not unlike other examples of “airline magazine syndrome,” hype and unrealistic expectations are often behind the interest. This is not a cloud strategy and is often based on one or more of the myths outlined in this note.
Advice: A cloud strategy begins by identifying business goals and mapping potential benefits of the cloud to them, while mitigating the potential drawbacks. Cloud should be thought of as a means to an end. The end must be specified first.
It is natural to want to simplify and standardize. However, cloud computing is not one thing and a cloud strategy has to be based on this reality. Cloud services are broad and span multiple levels (IaaS, SaaS), models (“lift and shift,” cloud native), scope (internal, external) and applications. The nature of cloud services and existing interoperability standards can make the issue of limiting options less important, as those details are often hidden from the consumer. However, even if one vendor and one strategy is possible, many significant compromises will frequently have to be made. In such cases, focusing on the underlying tactics can be just as important as the overall strategy.
Advice: A cloud strategy should be based on aligning business goals with potential benefits. Those goals and benefits are different in various use cases and should be the driving force for businesses, rather than any attempts to standardize on one offering or strategy. A single cloud strategy makes sense if it makes use of a decision framework that allows for and expects multiple answers.
Cloud computing is perceived as less secure. This is more of a trust issue than based on any reasonable analysis of actual security capabilities. To date, there have been very few security breaches in the public cloud — most breaches continue to involve on-premises data center environments. The majority of cloud providers invest significantly in security technology and personnel and realize that their business would be at risk without doing so. However, assuming they are secure is not advised.
There is also an opposing view that cloud platforms are actually more secure than on-premises platforms. This may, in fact, be true for many small or midsize businesses, some of which cannot make the necessary security investments, and even for some large enterprises that recognize that their security efforts may be lacking.
Security is not one monolithic entity. It is also important to identify where security responsibility lies and where the dividing line is. For example, if a customer uses a cloud IaaS provider, that provider is responsible for IaaS-level security, but the customer must own the overall security strategy and take ownership of application and other higher-level security issues.
Advice: Don’t assume that cloud providers are not secure, but also don’t assume they are. Cloud providers should have to demonstrate their capabilities, but once they have done so there is no reason to believe their offerings cannot be secure. There are enterprises whose security capabilities are formidable, but so are the capabilities of most cloud providers. However, the security levels of cloud providers will vary. Assess your actual capabilities and your potential provider’s capabilities and hold both to reasonable standards. Assuming on-premises capabilities are more secure can lead to a false sense of security.
Cloud computing is not all or nothing. It is being adopted (and should be adopted) in steps and in specific cases. Therefore, it is not surprising that early use cases (e.g., development/test) are mostly not for mission-critical systems. However, many organizations have progressed beyond early use cases and experimentation and are utilizing the cloud for mission-critical workloads. Some of these uses are true cloud services (SaaS, cloud native), while others are hosted models where the cloud benefits are at a lower level but still represent a genuine use. There are also many enterprises (not just small startups any more) that are “born in the cloud” and run their business (clearly mission-critical) completely in the cloud.
Advice: Mission-critical can mean different things. If it means complex systems, approaches such as taking a phased approach can ease the movement to the cloud. Hybrid solutions can also play a key role.
Most cloud decisions are not (and should not be) about completely shutting down data centers and moving everything to the cloud. A cloud strategy should also not be equated with a data center strategy. Neither should be done in a vacuum — you need to have data center space for things not in the cloud and, if you move things out of the data center, there are implications. But they are not the same thing. In general, data center outsourcing, data center modernization and data center strategies are not synonymous with the cloud.
It is common for people focused on one area (data center, for example) to think cloud computing is only about that. Continued use of the term “clouds” (rather than cloud services) leads to the perception that cloud = data center. The focus should be more on cloud services. There are multiple cloud services even within vendor cloud offerings. For example, within Amazon Web Services there exists Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Amazon S3 cloud storage and Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS).
Advice: Look at cloud decisions on a workload-by-workload basis, rather than taking an “all or nothing” approach. Cloud and data center outsourcing strategies are related but they are not the same thing. Assuming that cloud is “all or nothing” leads to the wrong analysis. Look to link cloud and data center strategies. Focus on cloud services and service interfaces.
Cloud computing has unique attributes and characteristics. Gartner’s cloud attributes include scalability and elasticity; they use service-based (and self-service) Internet technologies; they are shared (and uniform) and metered by use. Many migrations to the cloud are “lift and shift” rehosting, or other movements that do not exhibit these characteristics at higher levels. Being “hosted in the cloud” (even if on cloud IaaS) does not mean that what is hosted is also a cloud service. There are other types of cloud migration (refactoring and rewriting, for example) that typically do offer more of these characteristics. The most common use case for the cloud, however, is new applications.
Advice: Don’t assume that “migrating to the cloud” means that the characteristics of the cloud are automatically inherited from lower levels (like IaaS). Cloud attributes are not transitive. Distinguish between applications hosted in the cloud from cloud services. There are “half steps” to the cloud that have some benefits (there is no need to buy hardware, for example) and these can be valuable. However, they do not provide the same outcomes.
Virtualization is a commonly used enabling technology for cloud computing. However, it is not the only way to implement cloud computing (established SaaS vendors such as salesforce.com make very limited use of it, while new approaches such as containerization are gaining traction). Not only is it not necessary, it is not sufficient either. Even if virtualization is used (and used well), the result is not cloud computing. This is most relevant in private cloud discussions where highly virtualized, automated environments are common and, in many cases, are exactly what is needed. Unfortunately, these are often erroneously described as “private cloud” (see Myth 3 above).
Advice: Use the right term to describe what you are building. You don’t have to be cloud to be good. Avoid mis-setting expectations and adding to cloud confusion.
Some documents may not be available as part of your current Gartner subscription.
Continuing a series of posts addressing some of the lessons and take aways from recent experience in establishing Centers of Excellence.
I believe different enterprises are at different levels of sophistication in their use of centers of excellence (CoEs) and view them at different levels of strategic importance. Organizational Maturity Models are a good approximation to the stages enterprises will experience in creating CoE’s. Perhaps the best know of these is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM or CMMI.)
The CMM model identifies five increasing levels of maturity for an organization:
- Initial (chaotic, informal, ad hoc, heroic) the starting point for use of a new process.
- Repeatable (managed, documented, process discipline) the process is used repeatedly.
- Defined (institutionalized, integrated) the process is defined/confirmed as a standard business process.
- Managed (strategic, quantified) best practices are shared and process management and measurement takes place.
- Optimized (continuous improvement) includes deliberate and continuous process…
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A good book about the civil war in Rwanda recommend everyone read it
“In addition, technology is rushing to bring in revolution in the field of distance education. So in future, positive changes can be apprehended.” (Rashid, M, 2012)
First of all, Will remain within the traditional university , Face-to-Face, education is the most useful method , especially practical Since colleges such as engineering, medicine, agricultural ,that’s because these types of science require coefficient seminar and Laboratories/plants which are not available through the distance learning.
Education is considered remote revolution a reality in the transfer of knowledge and science easily to learn and conveniently, with that some remains of Applied Sciences useless with the quality of education through multimedia and Internet technology.
Sciences Applied Science needs a direct contact of the lecturer and students also requires practical training through lectures in workshops and laboratories ,is a thing of others available so far in the technology of distance education, although there are some companies that developed a programs that mimic laboratories in the fields of chemistry and medicine, but it is facing difficulties in the accuracy of the analytical results as they are considered virtual laboratories, which means failing to give basic manual skills needed to perform experiments researcher.
Generation of parents and grandparents do not always speak the collapse of the quality of education and cite in what is called, in Egypt, “ALKOOTAB”.
“ALKOOTAB” is an old way of education depends on the conservation and indoctrination and is a group of young students sitting on the ground in front of the cleric to learn the Koran.
Technology and Distance Education Advantages:
“Distance education no longer relies heavily as it used to on the delivery of point and broadcast media technologies. Recent innovations in hardware, software and internet technologies have made communications based distance education systems more available, easier to use and less costly.” (Moore M.G, 2005)
The combined four technologies Print, Audio, computers and television are form up the e-learning framework technology for the educational purpose, that means technology is the important factor for distance technology.
There are a several benefits of distance education as follows:
1- Freedom and adaptability : unlike the traditional educations approaches , Distance education provides many opportunities to make student in essential constraints associated with the educational process traditional, distance education fits all ages and various conditions such as work or study at the University of far from the place of residence, bringing education is the one who acclimate to life studying private and not vice versa.
2-Self_Motivation: As a result of the absence of the teacher and the existence of a virtual environment gives students the skills necessary for self-reliance and self-development, and allows the virtual environment for distance education to learn the skills of search for books and research and references on the subject under study, in addition to the skills of time management and lifestyle change and know the value of time.
3-Money/Time reduction: With Distance education there is no need to spent time in public transportation in order to catch the lecture in time or to travel for a far distances to have learn and spent a lot of money in the education process, or to leave your family or your country, it’s now easy to get all of that however you control your normal life.
4-Muliculuture skills: Online education allows students to get in touch with several cultures and languages and gain a lot of experience with different culture and contribute with the thoughts of other persons who is different from yours, In turn, gives the chance to gain more knowledge and experience that will help in our personal life and enhance our personality traits.
5-Better Educational performance: Software technology , especially Database systems over the web helps university library systems to enhance its efficiency , that allows to publish a huge amounts of Books and researches to be easily accessible for the students that will lead to enhance the education system overall as well as integration systems between universities improves the same approach .
In closing, Distance education will be the coming trend in the short term as there is a lot of enhancements will be on the way, however, traditional education will keep the main skills onboard, like the shoe maker hands made that have skills on available for the todays shoe maker.
Like a lot of the skills and crafts that have become extinct because of the technology Remote Education will contribute in one way or another in the extinction of some traditional education and skills tell our children about fun sitting with friends in the courtyard of the college and how we miss the beautiful feeling to go to the auditorium.
But such is life in constant change and cannot in any way of the resistance to change, but must cope with it.
Rashid, M, & Elahi, U 2012, ‘Use of Educational Technology in Promoting Distance Education’, Turkish Online Journal Of Distance Education, 13, 1, pp. 79-86, ERIC, EBSCOhost, viewed 19 June 2013.
Educational Technology & Society [Electronic Journal] 1998, n.p.: I E E E Computer Society, Learning Technology Task Force., University of Liverpool Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 19 June 2013.
Hagerman, M, Keller, A, & Spicer, J 2013, ‘The MSU Educational Technology Certificate Courses and Their Impact on Teachers’ Growth as Technology Integrators’, Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 57, 3, pp. 26-33, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 19 June 2013.
Conflict Management (River Nile Situation )
Dialogue is the best solution to solve the problems of conflicts between individuals or institutions, and without dialogue, the take-oriented most dangerous conflicts in crisis management , is avoidance.
Conflict Description :
The most important problem for me now, is the problem of conflict Nile River Basin countries, and has resulted in ignoring the problem for the past 15 years , and not to resort to building real dialogue to participate – not force – is the main reason to aggravate the problem and make it more complicated.
The problem began from a long period ago , because of the extensive need of water from the River Basin countries to increasing water – which are the lifeblood – and also the need for electric power that is generated by turbines operating within the dams to generate this power.
It took to build dams States in a manner which affected increasing a profound effect on the estimated water quotas for each country of the River Nile Basin, and from here the conflict began , for controlling the water.
In spite of the existence of agreements binding on all parties not to have been adjusted to fit the varying interests of those countries.
Possible solutions within a conflict :
“Contemporary understanding of conflicts represents a belief that conflict is not only a positive force of one group, but it is also absolutely necessary for the achievement of group efficiency”(Žikić et al., 2012)
In light of the multiple theories of art conflict management, there are several levels of conflict are:
1-Coperation : Cooperation is the lowest level of seriousness of the relationship between the two parties to the conflict, the arrival of the parties to a such stage of cooperation means that the problem is heading in the right way to solve.
2-Adjustment : Comes as a second level on the conflict issues , it can be solved as well, that faith disputing parties that both of them must give up part of his ambitions , could help in reaching a compromise that satisfies all parties, but stuck to both parties demands full might lead to exacerbate the problem and access to the highest level in dangerous.
3-Competition: connotation of competition means that the both of conflict parties will argue to improve its idea ,It is a new phase of rivalry, which is a difficult phase solution and often need to function as an intermediary third party is trying to bridge the gap in viewpoints between the conflicting parties.
“the relationship between the third party and disputants, the management history, and the characteristics of the conflict
help us understand when management occurs and the management techniques employed.” (Melin, 2011)
4-Compromise: After a period of conflict up sides parties understands the need to reach a compromise and mostly the third party plays an active role in building channels of communication between the two parties , to replace conflict to achieve the desired goal and is the link to the solution relieves all sides, but the lack of commitment to those pledges have serious impacts on both parties.
5- Avoidance: Lack of access to solutions leads to ignore both sides to find a suitable solution and may often be postponed and dialogue remains the problem persists, and often worsen the problem until it reaches to the complete degradation.
Reach solutions to resolve conflicts, Is always the hardest task , which needs people who are mature enough to understand the real reasons hidden behind the emergence of the problem and work on the study of those reasons, and prepare work plans , process and appropriate actions to manage it.
Must provide the necessary awareness to all sides of the problem to be convinced that the conflict and stick to the view is not helpful to all the parties and that no one survived when the situation reached to the level of outbreak of war.(Pius Vincent Chukwubuikem et al., 2013)
MELIN, M. M. 2011. The Impact of State Relationships on If, When, and How Conflict Management Occurs. International Studies Quarterly, 55, 691-715.
PIUS VINCENT CHUKWUBUIKEM, O., FRANCIS CHINEDU, E. & OLAMIDE MOFOLUSHO, M. 2013. Sustainability Reporting: A Paradigm for Stakeholder Conflict Management. International Business Research, 6, 157-167.
ŽIKIĆ, S., MARINOVIĆ, A. & TRANDAFILOVIĆ, I. 2012. PROMOTION OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN TERMS OF MODERN BUSINESS. Megatrend Review, 9, 201-221.
This Map will Guide you to every piece and component in Oracle Application R12
First: grep from the CONTEXT_FILE to get the web port by using the following command:
[appl@gfmis ~]$ grep -i jcache_port $CONTEXT_FILE
<jcache_port oa_var=”s_java_object_cache_port” oa_type=”PORT” base=”12345″ step=”1″ range=”-1″ label=”Java Object Cache Port”>12347</jcache_port>
to know which process is listen to this port use the command:
[appl@gfmis ~]$ lsof -i | grep 12347
the resulf will similar to this:
java 2925 appl 44u IPv4 5862742 TCP gfmis.mof.gov.kw:12347 (LISTEN)
query for the web process:
[appl@gfmis ~]$ ps -fp 2925
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
appl 2925 2680 0 Mar19 ? 00:02:28 /oracle/ERP/apps/tech_st/10.1.3/appsutil/jdk/bin/java -DCLIENT_PROCESSID=2925 -server -verbose:gc -Xm